How to Book Your Next Bus Trip

There are so many reasons why you need to make use of a bus service the next time you travel on vacation to Florida. I will list all of them down below so that you can evaluate and make your decision a lot easier. When it comes to traveling to any destination in a large group, loads of fun is generally had by all. The reason being is that you will get to socialize and meet a lot of people. And, you will be able to experience everything that Florida has to offer without you having to worry about driving to a destination yourself. Trust me, Florida is a way too beautiful for you to be doing the driving and not getting to really experience or take in the scenery that it has to offer.
Another great reason for bus travel is the cost effectiveness of it all. You can really spoil the group by going to Florida on a guided bus trip. In this way you will get to see and experience the very best of Florida. Another reason would be to have a personalized service that will enable you to get the best service when it comes to you going to a tourist hot spot or restaurant. You might even get better pricing by making use of a service such as this. Plus you’ll have loads of fun and meet all the other people on board the bus too.
You will also need to remember when booking a bus trip of this kind that you actually meet everybody’s needs. It would be in your best interest to make sure that there is a planned itinerary with this bus trip so that everybody will get to do what they want. Everyone in the group can get to experience what they want and more. I highly recommend you make use of a bus trip service so you can sit back, relax and enjoy your next bus trip to Florida.

Computer Programing

Basic Computer Programing
In this article, we are going to present computer programing and discover how it may be applied to command the way your computer operates. Generally, computer beginners aren’t concerned in controlling the computer, new computer users are commonly concerned in learning more about how it all works. Nevertheless they may be surprised to learn that computer programing increases computer knowledge as a whole and it can assist to decrease the fearfulness and intimidation associated with using a new computer.
Computer programing is creating a succession of commands that enable the computer to do some actions. The people who program computers (called Computer Programers) use a programing language to communicate with a computer. You might have heard of some of these languages in the past such as Visual Basic, C++, or Fortran. There are hundreds of other programing language and neither one is best than the other. Just about all of them are capable of executing the same tasks and accomplishing the same goals. A programmer chooses one language by a simple preference.
Each of these languages differ by the way they communicate with a computer, the commands that they abide by are very specific. Not a single command of one language can be exchanged with the commands or language of another. But all of them can be used to control a computer.
At present it would be impossible to teach you how to program any language in a single article or lesson. But we can still introduce you to some of programing’s most basic concepts – starting with the commands. Commands are the instructions that a computer conforms to perform an action. To make them work inside of a program, programmers assign commands to objects like buttons for example.
The commands in a program are pretty worthless unless they have some data to pursue so programmers either give the programs some information to work with (list of names or numbers for example) or they make the program generate it’s own data. Occasionally, the data comes from an outside source like the Internet or the computer that the program resides. The data that a program receives is called input and data that the program generates is called output.
Other times, the data is unknown. If the program were working with a simple algebra equation like, “x + 5 = y,” the variables “x” and “y” would be unidentified pieces of data. Or if a program were to calculate a date “x” days from now, the variable “x” would be an unidentified piece of data until we tell the program what “x” is. In programming, it’s sometimes required to work with unidentified pieces of data.
That’s when conditions are convenient,conditions allow a program to execute an action based on the event of a previous command. Using this type of command, we could instruct a program to do one thing if the “x” variable in our latter example turned out to be 9 days, and then do different thing if the variable turned out to be 31 days.
Commands, data, variables, and conditions help build the most simple programs and there are certainly more components of any programming language. But when they’re typed into a programing language and compiled to create an executable file (a file ending with the .exe extension), they turn into a software application.
As we mentioned earlier, you can use a programing language to control your computer. By using simple commands, you can program your computer to perform mathematical tasks, fill out web forms, compose an email message and send it off, or any number of other things. If you’re interested, you may find Visual Basic one of the most easiest computer programing languages to learn. Visual Basic is an object-oriented programing language and it automatically codes much of a program the minute a programmer drags a button onto a screen.

Computer Programming: Chapter: 01 – Introduction

Introduction
Before you jump in and start learning a programming language, it will be helpful to you if you understand what is programming and how it works, including some programming terminology.
A computer on its own is just a useless box. It’s nothing but a bunch of different hardware items assembled into a single unit. At this point, these hardware items either together or individually are of no use. This is as good as a Car that has been assembled. Is the car of any use without fuel? In the same way, we need to provide the computer with fuel, in this case its electricity (though there existed some types of mechanical computers, here we are referring to electrical machines). A computer at this point is essentially just a big bunch of tiny electronic switches that are either on or off. Now this is as good as a Car with enough fuel and can be driven, but no driver to drive.
We need a driver, who can operate the steering wheel, gears, breaks, etc., which will make the car move around. In the same way by setting different combinations of these switches, you can make the computer do something, for example, play a video on the screen or play a music video through the computer speakers or open a file, etc. Now telling a computer when to switch on these switches and when to switch off them is in other words nothing but instructing a computer what to do. This is what Programming is in very simple words.
Programming often refers to computer programming. So this now brings to our first and important question!
What is Programming?
Computer programming commonly known as programming or coding is the art of making a computer do what you want it to do. Programming in very simple terms is about writing programs. A sequence of instructions written to perform a specified task for a computer is known commonly as a Program, but is also referred to as a Software Program or even Computer Program. A computer being just hardware requires instructions to act upon. These instructions are executed in the computes CPU.
Programming is planning how to solve a problem. No matter what method is used — pencil & paper, slide rule, adding machine, or a computer — problem solving requires planning.
Based on the above definition, Programming is planning how to solve a problem. So here we are not actually solving the problem, but the computer will do it for us. If we solve the problem ourselves, then there is no necessity to write a program and hence, we don’t require a computer isn’t it.
Then why do we need a computer, simply because we know how to solve a problem and also know to instruct a computer to do it for us, but cannot do it at the speed & accuracy with which a computer can do it. Also we get Tired & Bored of doing the same job again and again, but the computer can do the same job a zillion times at the same speed & accuracy as the first one without getting bored or tired.
We can take a simple example of calculating the Sum of all even numbers from 1 to 1,000,000. This is not something that we cannot do, but the time that is required to calculate, the possibility of making a mistake at some point of time, amount of resources required if we use a pen and a paper or a calculating machine, and other similar reasons make this an undesirable option. Over & above this, what if we need to calculate between different set of numbers again and again? It is difficult humanly. But by writing a program, we can achieve this in less than 5 minutes. At the same time we can keep running the same program again and again for doing any number of calculations and also we can get accurate results in seconds.
I can instruct the computer to take each number, Add it with the next and from there on Add every next number to the previous sum till we reach the upper limit specified. Don’t look at these instructions for its accuracy, but what you need to understand here is that, I can instruct a computer to solve a problem only if I know how to do it. This means that unless I know the solution to the problem, it’s of no use even to try solving one.
You can take an example of a Cab driver on the street, but who is new to the city. With this cab driver, we cannot simple get into the car and ask him to drive to Point A. We will have to give him proper instructions on the route that he needs to take to reach the destination. I can give him the instructions on the route only if I know how. Otherwise, it will be a futile effort.
In the same way there is no point even trying to write a program until you have the knowledge of how you are going to set about solving the problem.
Put in simple words, Programming is telling a computer what to do. Though it seems to be pretty simple, it’s very complicated. You will have to keep in mind about two things here:
The very important point here is that Computers don’t speak English. Since a Computer being a machine only understands two basic concepts: on and off. The on and off concept is called binary system with on representing 1 and off representing 0. Hence Computer knows only one language that is of 0’s and 1’s commonly known as binary language.
The second important thing is that your instructions should be PRECISE. As I have mentioned previously, a computer on its own is just a useless box. It’s nothing but a bunch of different hardware items assembled into one unit.
So if you have to instruct a computer, then you have to tell them PRECISELY what to do.
Now I hope you have got to know the complexity in Programming.

Computer Programs Copyright Protection in South Africa

INTRODUCTION
This paper gives a modest contribution to the issue of computer programs copyright and its protection under South African law. It uses as a case study the decision of the Supreme Court of Appeal in Haupt T/A Soft Copy v Brewers Marketing Intelligence (Pty) Ltd and Others 2006 (4) SA 458 (SCA) (the Haupt’s case). What is the implication of this decision for South Africa in terms of copyright protection? Is South African copyright protection of software too soft? What consequences this decision can entail as far as software industry is concerned in South Africa? Can it scare off potential investors?
Here are some of the issues the paper is looking at. The paper is divided into three sections. The first section will give a brief view of the case, the second will deal with the concept and regulation of copyrights, finally the third will address the discussion of the case. The paper will end up with a conclusion.
1. FACTS OF THE CASE
Haupt, the appellant, applied to the Cape High Court for an order interdicting the respondents in terms of the Copyright Act of 1978 from infringing his alleged copyright in some computer programs. The High Court held that Haupt’s claim could not be sustained and dismissed the application. The decision of the Cape High Court was reversed by the Supreme Court of Appeal which set an order interdicting the respondents from infringing the appellant’s copyright in the computer programs.
2. ISSUE OF COPYRIGHTS
2.1 Concept of Copyrights
2.1.1 Definition
Copyrights are referred to as rights to ensure protection of information from duplication and distribution. They are a subset of intellectual property rights that aim to create a balance between the rights of an individual against those of the public by conferring the author or creator of a work the exclusive right to control and profit of his work.
2.1.2 Infringement of Copyright
The most relevant infringing activities to computer programs involve “copying”, “adapting” and publicly distributing the work. In each case the activity can be in relation to the whole of the work or a substantial part of it.
2.2 Regulation
Before dealing with the regulation of computer programs copyright in South Africa, regard must be had to the way this question has been addressed in other jurisdictions and internationally, since this matter has a high international scope.
2.2.1 World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
Computer programs are protected as literary works within the meaning of article 2 of the Berne Convention. Such protection applies to computer programs, whatever may be the mode or the form of their expression (article 4).

The Berne Convention provides that copyright vests in the author of a work (article3).
As illustrated below the approach taken by the WIPO is the general position throughout the world.
2.2.2 Australia
In terms of section 10(1) the Australian Copyright Act of 1968, computer programs are protected as literary works.
2.2.3 United Kingdom
Like in Australia, “literary work” has been extended in the UK Copyright (Computer Programs) Regulations 1992 to include preparatory design material for a computer program.
2.2.4 The European Union
The EU Directive 91/250/EEC of 14 May 1991 on the legal protection of computer programs requires that computer programs and associated design materials be protected under copyright as literary works within the sense of the Berne Convention.
2.2.5 Japan
Japan is one of the rare industrialized countries where computer programs are not protected as literary works. The Japanese Copyright Act 48 of 1970 under articles 21 and 27 grants the author of a computer program the exclusive right to reproduce and adapt his work.
2.2.6 South Africa
Copyrights are regulated in South Africa by the Copyright Act 98 of 1978. This Act provides copyright protection for a wide variety of works, such as literary works, musical works, artistic works, computer programs, etc. and states as a general rule that copyright vests in the person who creates the relevant work. Nevertheless since the amendment of 1992, computer programs gained a special status in terms of which the copyright vests in the person who exercised control over the making of the computer program, rather than the programmer who created the work.
Now that the legal framework of copyright has been set, we can discuss the decision of the Haupt’s case accordingly.
3 DISCUSSION OF THE HAUPT’S CASE
3.1 Establishment of the infringement
As pointed out above this is a case of an alleged infringement of copyright in computer programs.
First, for infringement of copyright to be established, it is submitted that a plaintiff must satisfy two tests:
– a causal connection between the alleged infringement and the copyright work;
– there must be objective similarity
In the case at issue, the infringement is clearly established since these two tests are satisfied, indeed there is a causal connection between the copyright work and the infringement because some portions of the work have been copied, creating therefore an objective similarity.
Nevertheless, the question that can come to one’s mind is how come the program was created by the first respondent and it is the appellant who is considered as the author while there was no employment contract. It is simply because according to the Copyright Amendment Act of 1992, the copyright of computer programs vests not in the programmer who created the program but in the person who exercised the control over the making of the program, which is here the appellant.
No doubt that this decision is consistent with the Copyright Act. But is the approach taken by the Act the most suitable for the protection of copyrights in South Africa?
3.2 Suitability of computer programs copyright protection in South Africa
As noted above, South Africa has taken a position utterly different from most of foreign jurisdictions and the WIPO as well in the issue of computer programs copyright. Indeed, since 1992 computer programs are no longer protected as literary works with the implication that the copyright in the former programs has shifted from the creator of the work to the person exercising control over the making of the program.
What is the rationale of this approach when one knows that copyright is a legal means to encourage and protect human creativity and innovation?
It seems to me a peculiar position, since it takes away all the rationale of copyrights. Roos (“Rabble Rousing for Cyber Heads: Development in South Africa’s IP law and international investment concerns” (No 82/2006), CIPS), on the other hand, contends that the fact that the copyright is shifted from the real creator to the person who exercises control over the making of the program does not really matter since the copyright still exists.
I definitely do not share this position, my personal opinion is that: to award copyright to the wrong person is nothing else that negation of copyright.
But where I agree with Roos is when he states that this decision will not scare off potential investors, since the investors have after all a coinciding interest with the party in which favour the court found.
So, as far as I am concerned, what I can say is that the rationale followed by the legislature in passing the Copyright Amendment Act of 1992 is more economic than copyright oriented. Indeed it strengthens the position of parties already strong by giving them more power and does not really protect nor encourage human creativity by defending the works of the mind.
Is this difference between South Africa and other jurisdictions and international bodies merely superficial?
3.3 South African approach contra international approach
As mentioned by Roos, the mere difference between the South African and the international handling of a computer program should not be confused with the prospect of less protection. Nevertheless does not the difference in this instance amount to discrepancy?
Roos contends that there is no discrepancy since South Africa protects the copyright in computer programs. He contends that the difference is merely superficial.
I do not agree with Roos on this point, I am of the view that the difference is substantial. Indeed, as we have seen in the second section, the WCT protects computer programs as literary works while South Africa protects computer programs as a category of its own. The copyright vests in the creator of the work in terms of the WCT while in South Africa, the copyright vests in the person exercising control over the making of the computer program. That makes all the difference, which definitely amounts to discrepancy.
How can programmers protect themselves against the flaws of the legislation?
3.4 Contractual clauses
It is fortunate that programmers have still a way to protect their copyrights in the computer programs they are creating through contractual clauses stipulating that the copyright vests in them. Indeed, as submitted by Roos, “most programmers with an interest in retaining the copyright should reasonably negotiate that the copyright vests in them”. But are programmers really in a position to negotiate any copyright clause favouring them with parties far more powerful than they are? Therefore the efficiency of these clauses in protecting the programmers’ rights is still to be seen.
CONCLUSION
There is no doubt that the decision of the Supreme Court of Appeal in the Haupt’s case is in compliance with the Copyright Act, so the decision in se is not a bad one but the problem is to be found in the legislation that has made possible this decision. The legislation, as noted in this paper, has taken a wrong approach in protecting the copyright in computer programs that needs to be fixed despite the fact that this is unlikely to scare off potential investors. Thus, in making a final decision on the copyright of computer programs, it is essential that South Africa consider the international situation and adapts its laws accordingly. A purely domestic solution is unlikely to be successful since the multimedia era requires consistency across the legal systems of the world.

Computer Programming For Beginners – The Right Approach

Computer programming is one of the most interesting subjects on earth if you will just take the right approach. Unlike those major subjects in schools, programming should be treated differently. Programming for beginners require that the wannabe programmer has full understanding on how it is done and what the basics of are.
What is Computer Programming?
Programming is simply telling a computer to do a task. It is very much like teaching a toddler how to add numbers. In programming individuals, we usually employ several languages the person can understand like English or French. In the same way, writing a computer program requires humans to employ languages that can be read by the computer such as C, Pascal, Java, and Python.
Human languages are very complex, however human beings learn to use them because of our intelligence. On the other hand, computers are not so smart; the language used in instructing them is quite simple. This is the reason why it’s fun and easy for a human being like you to learn one or several computer programming languages. Once you become familiar with even one computer language, it will be much easier for you to learn another.
Things to Consider When Writing a Computer Program
1. Set up the logic of the program.
Logic is considered the backbone of any program. It needs to be prepared based on the resources your chosen programming language allow. Preparing the logic must be done prior to the real coding process. You should make a flow chart for your program, or write its algorithm before you start with the process of writing the program.
2. Split the programs into functions.
The majority of the programs let you break the program into functions. These functions need to be written with the least number of instructions. They must be designed in such a way that they can be reused over and over again.
3. Study the syntax of every command you’ll use.
One of the reasons for most programming errors is improper use of syntax. There are many programs that have features that can be used to check the syntax of each command as well as integral functions that you want to utilize.
4. Make sure your code is short.
The fewer the number of instructions the faster the rate of execution of the program. Most of the time, we use complex logic in getting a task done. Little do we know that this task can easily be performed if we utilize the built-in functions of the programming language. To avoid these problems, you should have enough knowledge of all the inbuilt functions available in the program.
5. Be sure that variable names and functions are logical.
Proper names used in functions and variables make the coding process simpler. While using illogical variable names won’t impede the program’s functionality, it will make it harder for you to enhance or modify this code afterwards.
Aside from learning various programming languages, computer programming for beginners involves familiarization of the above-mentioned tips. So you better put these things in mind if you want to pursue a career in programming.

Computer Programming Concepts For Beginners – The Basic Procedures Involved

The process of instructing or telling a computer what to do is called computer programming. It involves writing valuable, sustainable, extensible commands that can be read by a computing system to do a significant task. Programming can be achieved using one or some of the different languages dubbed as programming languages. Since one instruction is not enough for a computer to perform something substantial, you need to come up with a set of instructions, known as programs, and submit it to the computer to be able to complete a task. For beginners, learning programming concepts as well as the processes in making computer programs isn’t a piece of cake; it requires know-how and programming skills.
The lowest form of coding a novice programmer like you can do is the machine code. This code is written in binary and it uses a series of “0’s” and “1’s”. But just because it is know as the lowest form of code doesn’t mean it is the easiest to do. Higher code forms like Java, C, and C are made to make it easier for anyone to learn and use compared the machine code.
For the newbies to know what they should expect from their chosen field, here are the procedures involved in computer programming:
1. Developing a program
In this stage, the programmer, whether novice or experienced, usually work with internet marketers, sociologists, or other individuals to find out the program needed by the market to be able to work better at home or in the workplace. The features of the programs are then created from the suggestions of the other people involved. It is the programmer who’ll determine the feasibility of the suggested features.
2. Choosing the Right Language
Depending on the programs you need to develop and your knowledge of the language, you now need to select the right language you will use. Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) and Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) are the two Internet languages commonly used by programmers. HTML is ideal if you are developing a basic web page while PHP are for the applications or things that you actually don’t see happening. Other languages you can use are CSS, Visual Basic, MySQL, C, C, Java, and many others. Programmers frequently use different languages in a single program since each of them has unique functions.
3. Writing the script or coding the program
Once the features of a certain program are made final, the programmer should now start working on it. This involves coding the program or writing the script to perform particular actions by means of a computer language.
4. Testing the program
After coding the program, it needs to be tested before it will be released. Programmers usually apply this program in various operating systems to test its ability to function. If the program works well, it will then be released in beta version.
5. Troubleshooting errors
Along with the release of the program’s beta version, is a request for users to report any bugs or errors they encounter so they can be fixed right away.
Computer programming is by no mean easy. You need to be armed first with the basics before you should move on to the next and more crucial step. The best way to learn the ins and outs of computer programming and programming concepts for beginners is to go to schools or to take programming tutorials.

Computer Programming Degree Study Options

The opportunity to earn a degree in computer programming is available to students who wish to enter a career in a variety of fields. Students can train for an exciting career by enrolling in an accredited educational training program. There are a number of schools and colleges that allow students to pursue a career designing, maintaining, testing and working with various computer programs. Students can study at an associate’s, bachelors, or master’s degree level.
Associate Degree
Students can gain the skills needed to enter into a number of careers with an accredited associate’s degree in computer programming. Gaining an education at this level typically takes two years of study. Students will have the chance to study a variety of subjects including programming, JavaScript, desktop publishing, web-based programming, object-oriented programming, data structure, and much more. By obtaining an accredited associate level degree in this field students’ can pursue various careers. Career opportunities include computer programmer, computer software engineer, computer support specialist, and much more. Students who obtain an associates degree can enter the workforce or enroll in a bachelor’s degree program.
Bachelor Degree
Training for a bachelor’s degree in computer programming can be done in as little as four years. By enrolling in an accredited bachelors degree program students can train for a variety of careers. Possible employment could include working as computer software engineers, system analysts, computer engineers, computer programmers, systems managers, computer consultants, and more. In order to pursue a career in this field students’ need to study courses like computer languages, database programming, computer systems security, data transfer systems, Visual BASIC, and many other related subjects. With an accredited bachelors degree training program students will be prepared to begin their career or enroll in a master’s degree training program.
Masters Degree
Pursuing an accredited master’s degree in computer programming can be done by completing an additional two years of study. Students can gain the knowledge and skills needed to enter their desired career by studying C++, software design, prototype testing, operating systems, web design, multimedia, and many other relevant subjects. By training at a masters degree level of study students will have the skills to pursue a number of careers in the field. An accredited master’s degree will allow for employment in game art and design, website development, video game design, and many other computer related career areas. With a masters degree students can pursue the career of their dreams.
Students who enroll in an accredited educational degree training program will ensure that they receive a quality education. Agencies like ABET, Inc. are available to provide proof of a schools ability to provide the best education possible. Students can learn more about their desired degree by contacting educational programs of interest. Accredited degree study options are available to provide students with the training they need to succeed in their desired career. Start the path to the career of your dreams by enrolling in a program today.

Computer Programming – Skills and Traits Programmers Possess

Those who work in computer programming appear to have a certain set of traits that benefit them in their careers. When paired with the skills learned through higher education these traits can help programmers become successful. Computer programmers are able to complete a number of specific duties due to the traits they carry that are beneficial to this type of work. Computer programmers are very detailed thinkers and are able to excel in their positions due to the various traits and skills they possess.
Professionals with ISTJ (Introverted, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) personality types have natural skills that are beneficial to this line of work, according to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicators (MBTI) assessment personality test. They are focused, observant, and good communicators which are all traits that are beneficial to computer programming. Careers in computer programming require individuals that are interested in and capable of working alone and in teams as well as in structured and orderly environments. Professionals in this field can find work in various businesses such as:

  • Internet Marketing Companies
  • Computer Consultant Businesses

They may also find employment in the:
Engineering Industry

  • Manufacturing Industry

Computer programmers are able to enjoy working on a variety of projects due to the traits and skills they possess. Professionals in this line of work have been found to value tradition and are very family oriented. Computer programming is considered a good career field for those who are observant and practical, and enjoy working long hard hours. As a part of computer education, computer programming is a great field for those who like to solve problems and create new things. Those who have the right personality and wish to enter a career in computer programming can do so by completing research and learning about the training requirements.
The traits that are common in computer programmers and the skills and knowledge that are obtained through higher education can be beneficial to pursuing a successful career. Other common traits can include high intelligence, confidence, dependability, and detail oriented. Skills for employment as a programmer can be obtained by completing online courses in computer networks, database design, computer program writing, and web design and multimedia. All of the personality traits and skills that are obtained through accredited training can help to make a computer programmer that is beneficial to a variety of businesses and corporations.
Those with ISTJ personalities are beneficial to this line of work because they are dependable, detail oriented, and able to complete a number of tasks at once. Multiple opportunities exist for those that have the traits to pursue successful careers in computer programming. Accredited online computer programming schools allow students to pursue an education from the comfort of home. Training possibilities will vary by school or college but will allow students to choose the career, level of training, and specific area of study that will help them match their skills and traits for an exciting career. By receiving a higher education, those with the right personality traits are able to enter into successful positions.

Program Your Future at Computer Programming Schools

While some head off to college to pursue liberal arts, others will go the tech route into computer programming schools. A career in computer programming can mean many things. From the financial advantages of a lucrative career, a computer programming degree provides professionals with plenty of other opportunities. Some say with a computer programming degree, you’ll never have to worry about your job outlook because computer programming professionals are always in demand. Find out what it takes to get there.
The Hardware of a Career
A career in computer programming can entail various things. While most computer programming degree holders get jobs doing just that, there’s so much more to the career. For starters, a computer programmer is in charge of imputing sequenced instructions in order to direct a computer to do an assigned task or action. In order to achieve this, computer programmers must write, test, and maintain programs that computers must follow in order to perform specific functions. A knowledge of computer networking is important as many programmers will work for companies that have multiple workstations and systems in place. Problem solving is also a key ingredient for someone with a career in computer programming. A computer programmer must develop system solutions using appropriate methodologies and techniques. Those with a computer programming degree with knowledge in computer hardware and computer networking should have a firm grasp of this upon graduation.
The Ins and Outs of a Computer Programming Degree
So what will you learn as a computer programming student? Since computer programmers have to review, analyze, and modify programming systems, he or she must learn the tricks of encoding, testing, debugging, and documenting programs. Although this might sound complicated, a seasoned computer programmer — one with a computer programming degree and experience — has this down to a science. Until then an associate’s computer programming degree in a related area or higher, combined with up to three years of experience in the field will get you there.
A career in computer programming takes more than just the technical mumbo-jumbo. Common concepts, practices, and procedures within a specific field is also beneficial to a computer programmer. Once you’re ready and able (and can land a job), you can expect to earn around $50,979. That’s the median expected salary for an entry level computer programmer in the United States according to the Basic Salary Report, an estimate based on broad national data reported by human resource departments of tens of thousands of employers.
Now that you know what it takes and what you can earn, you can take the first step to computer programming success. Begin by going for an associate or bachelor’s computer programming degree. A degree in computer science is generally what’s required for employment at more prestigious technology companies. Keep in mind science, mathematics, and engineering also provide the kind of base knowledge employers look for (beyond computer programming courses). And don’t forget about specific programming language — employers typically want computer programming professionals to be certified and/or familiar with those they use.

Computer Programming Basics – Language You Can Use in Creating Programs

Individuals who want to learn computer programming and the languages that can be used in making programs must first be familiar with the basics. Languages employed in programming should be one of your primary considerations. Prior to creating programs, it is crucial that you know the different types and levels of programming languages. Among these are:
1. Machine Level Language
We all know that computers work in bits and bytes and it reads and understands binary digits 0 and 1. While you are free to make a program in any language you want, it has to be transformed into the languages of Os and 1s before it can be implemented.
It means you need to write a program or to convert your written program into machine language. And this is no easy task. It is nearly impossible to memorize a long sequence of 0s and 1s for each instruction you wish to be executed.
Yes it is true that before the development of high level languages, the ones used in making programming codes are machine level languages. These days, however, this level of language is not used anymore in designing computer programs.
2. Assembly Level Language
This level of programming is only one level higher than low level or machine languages. This is actually the reason why creating a program using such languages isn’t a piece of cake, although, the programming code produced is pretty understandable.
Until now, there are lots of programs for embedded technology that are created in assembly language. The program that’s responsible in transforming assembly level programs into machine level programs is called the assembler.
3. High Level Language
These computer languages are easier for humans to understand. It entails clear statements for making each instruction. Languages that fall in this category have different purposes. There are languages designed for web programming; some for desktop applications, while others can perform both tasks.
One thing to bear in mind though, high level language isn’t easy for the computer to understand. This is where the importance of an interpreter or a compiler comes in. Such programs transform the programming code into a language form the machine can understand.
Aside from these three basic levels of languages, another generation of programming language is now being designed. This is dubbed as the fourth generation language which is designed for those who have very minimal or no programming experience.
Developers of such language want these inexperienced programmers to learn to prepare their own code. This is also the very reason why high level languages like Java already came with these systems. These enable a person to write a programming code without memorizing every function.
Bear in mind that no matter what programming language you want to learn, you need to have proper understanding of the basics. If you’re not familiar with programming language basics, you will not be able to make a program in that specific language. It is advisable that you take up computer courses so you’ll be able to learn more than just the basics of computer programming.